Saturday, May 28, 2011

Fairview, NC: Imladris Farm, visited by The Buncombe County Fruit Nuts

Have you ever heard of bio-char?

Here in Western North Carolina, both Kacy and I have suddenly become extremely busy with other projects and jobs.  Since we haven't had time to regularly post profiles of our interviewees lately, I'd like to copy/link a post from another great organization.

In March, I visited Imladris farm, a successful business focusing on rabbits and on berry jams.  An informal group, based in Asheville and calling themselves the Buncombe Fuit Nuts (formerly the more descriptive Buncombe County Fruit and Nut Club), organized a 30-person visit to Walter Harrill's small mountain farm, and I went along for the education and the photographs.  Walter is one of the more practical, warm, and generally nice-guy farmers that I've had the pleasure to meet!

Click here for the full post from the Fruit Nuts blog, and click the jump for a copied version of the post, with my photographs.

Sunday, May 8, 2011

A Brief Update and Some Favorite Portraits

If you've been following the Stewards project for awhile, you may have noticed that our transcriptions and profiles are slowing down a bit.  This is because of a few things.  For one, it's summer again and there's simply not as much time to spend on the computer while the sun is shining. 

For another, we are seeking funding again to continue this project.  Without financial support we must work on the transcriptions during our free time, and these one- or two-hour conversations take many hours of work.  

Because of this we will be posting fewer full transcriptions from now on.  Posts will contain more narratives and photographs, along with some posts of topical discussion.

We have an endless well of conversations available to us; there are many farmers out there to speak with, and we have over 50 interviews completed that we haven't even told you about yet, from Kansas to Oregon.  We'll get there.

We hope that this project will serve to archive a point in history and provide perspective to the polarized fields of food and agriculture.  Readers are encouraged to read profiles and interviews with farmers whom they agree with and disagree with.  We will continue to collect and share, though a final end product is still unclear and vague.

This time last year, Mothers' Day, we were completing interviews in Vermont and driving to Connecticut to visit Kacy's mother.  We stayed there for a few days and conducted interviews around Connecticut; we then had an adventure in New York City and worked our way slowly through Pennsylvania, West Virginia, Virginia, North Carolina, and then went east through Tennessee, Kentucky, Illinois, and all the way to California and Oregon.  We learned an incredible amount, and we averaged 6 interviews a week over 5.5 months.  That'a a lot of conversation.

And a lot of perspectives.  Food and farming is a hot subject these days.  We are not advocates for any particular type of farming, but we remind you that there are stories and passions behind every style of agriculture, from the activists to the old-timers to the geneticists.  

For now, here's a treat of some of our favorite portraits from the trip, many of whom we haven't yet shared.  Enjoy, and thanks for reading!

Oh, and if you use Facebook, we've started a page for the project.  Be our friend, here!

Connecticut: Backyard farmer.

Denver, Colorado: Urban farmer.

Penrose, Colorado: Orchardist.

Rifle, Colorado: Cattle Rancher.

Utah: Melon Grower.

Davis, California: Seed Technology Professor.

Medford, Oregon: Diversified Farmer.

Mt. Angel, Oregon: Hop Growers.

Canby, Oregon: Hazelnut Growers.

Nehalem, Oregon: Diversified Small Farmer.

Dayton, Virginia: Dairyman.

Bay City, Oregon: Horse Enthusiast.

Bay City Oregon: Veternarians.

Missouri: Crop Farmer.

Colorado: Penitentiary Agriculture Manager.

Industry Maine: Seed and Potato Grower.  

 McAlevy's Fort, Pennsylvania: Diversified Farmers.

 Ashland, Oregon: Farm Manager.

 California: Rice Farmer.

 North Carolina: Student Garden Crew.

Kansas: Wheat Farmers.

Thanks again for reading.  These stories are important, and we can only imagine what agriculture will look like in ten years. 

Thursday, May 5, 2011

Ag Video Thursday: Pigs and Tango

Today we have a short film, courtesy of the Southern Foodways Alliance, a group that also works with oral histories around the South.

Emile DeFelice is a pig farmer in South Carolina.  He speaks with interest and love for his pigs, linking the process, the business, and the practical work of raising hogs to philosophy and the intimate art of dance. 

It's about 12 minutes long, and a nice, inspiring video to wake up to on a sunny morning.  Let us know what else you'd like to see!

RIDE THAT PIG TO GLORY from UM Media Documentary Projects on Vimeo.

Monday, April 25, 2011

Woodland, California: Doug Heath, Monsanto tomato breeder.

Even though I grew up in suburban Detroit, I’ve been a vegetable gardener from a very young age.  I developed a love of that.  As far as I can remember back, one of my uncles was a gardener…and I remember eating peas from behind his garage when I was really little, maybe five or six.  And we grew up on the poor side.  My mother raised 4 kids and we had canned peas.  That was the cheapest thing.  So I thought, I don’t like peas…they taste pasty, yuck.  And I ate those things; it was like magic to me.  I was like, “Wow!  How can that be?!”  Even as a little kid I’m thinking, “these are like candy!  What happened?  How could things be so bad in that can?”  And it just kind of stayed with me. 

You've probably never met somebody so passionate about tomatoes.  Doug Heath spends his life with them.

*A caveat before this article begins:  Please be aware that the term "hybrid" is unrelated to "genetic engineering" or "GMO." Many assumptions are often made about Monsanto's seed development; STEWARDS attempts to present straightforward transcriptions of interviews with agriculturalists across the board, including their personal perspective on the current state of American agriculture.

We welcome comments and discussion; please feel free to ask for clarification of terms or offer critique.  If it has been a while since your last genetics class (do you remember Gregor Mendel and Punnet squares?), I recommend reviewing our previous blog post, which contains some videos of the basics, before reading the full interview.
It was another hot summer day when we arrived in Woodland, California at a Monsanto Company research station. We had traded multiple calls and emails with public relation folks in St. Louis (at Monsanto's headquarters) and they agreed to set us up for a couple of hours with Doug Heath.  We met him in the old farmhouse office and hopped in his truck to explore the plots.

I’ll give you a background of the place here. I’ve been here 17 years. When I came we were a small, privately held company called Petoseed and this station, which stared as a Petoseed station in the early ‘70’s…it was a farm. And the house you just came in through was the farmhouse that got converted a little bit into an office. Other than that there were basically just some barns. This was a Yolo County farm.

Basically, Doug is tasked with research and development of fresh market tomatoes.  Monsanto has breeders based around the world, working on crops in different climates and cultures.  Doug is responsible mostly for tomatoes that will be adapted to and grown in the Americas and Australia.  It's a big job, and he spoke of the satisfaction that comes when he stands in the field of a farmer abroad and looks out on a crop of a fruit that he bred here in California.
He walks us up and down rows of tomatoes in the research plots; it is a little late in the season, but many plants still have some over-ripe fruits that we sample.  

I’ll sort of take you on a tour through flavor here.  I’m going to go up in sweetness.  I’ll end up with something that’s really really really sweet.

We taste a diversity of his projects off the vine, and he often pauses one of his detailed answers to our questions to elaborate on the particular balance of a variety's acidity, sweetness, history, or nutrition.

We recognized the importance of interviewing people like Doug who are often under-represented in discussions of modern agriculture in the media.  There are many negative associations that are made about companies such as Monsanto and their work; unfortunately, no matter your positions on hot-topic issues, there is a lot of misinformation out there as well.  For the record, there is no genetic engineering happening with tomatoes here.  There are modern scientific tools used, but the methods are traditional: grow a crop, save the best plants, grow the crop again, and cross-breed lines of tomatoes to create successful hybrids.

I’m a traditional plant breeder; I’m doing things just like Mendel did with his peas, crossing things together and selecting for traits.  That’s really what we’re basically doing here still; my job really hasn’t changed.  You know, we’ve gotten new owners twice, but the job remains the same.  We’ve got these tools, like the molecular marker allows us to go quite a bit faster.  

The molecular markers that he mentions are small stretches of genes on DNA that scientists can look for to see if a desired trait has been introduced into a given plant.  This means that Doug can take a sliver of a leaf from a young tomato plant and send it to the lab; the lab analyzes the DNA.  If the genes that they are looking for are present, he can grow the plant out and save its seed for reproduction.  This cuts years off of research because he does not need to wait for an entire growing season to find out  if a plant has become disease-resistant, for example.
And what traits is he working towards?  Resistance to diseases such as Fusarium wilt and late blight are big ones.  He makes the case that breeding resistant strains of plants lowers or eliminates the need for spraying.  Fusarium, much like the flu, is always changing and evolving.  Every few years a new strain of the disease arrives, which affects most tomatoes, whether they are heirlooms, grown organicaly, or grown conventionally.

Last year in particular there was a big outbreak of late blight on the east coast, so a lot of tomatoes were lost.  That becomes like a serious spray program!  Pretty powerful fungicides to control it.  So if we can provide something that’s resistant genetically, the grower doesn’t have to pay for the spray and the consumers get something that’s unsprayed.  So it works into the organic movement as well.
One of his projects involves the breeding of heirloom tomatoes.  This has drawn criticism; many people believe that there is a stark dichotomy between heirloom fruits and larger-scale commercially available ones.  Doug doesn't believe that this is necessary.  He repeats how important it is for him to maintain flavor, color, and quality.

So why does he work on heirloom varieties?  First of all, because he and his children love them.  Practially though, his focus is mostly to increase their disease resistance and their yield.  One particular variety that he likes typically only sets 2-3 fruits per plant.  The plant's flowers are often malformed, resulting in damaged or nonexistent fruits.  Through cross-breeding and selection, he has been able to come up with a line that contains all of the original flavor and color, but yields many more fruits per plant.  This is a boon to gardeners and farmers, and Doug does not believe that they need to choose between yield and quality.

There’s a lot of skeptics, and I expected that.  There’s a lot of stuff in the press on the topic and it’s a very emotional topic for people.  I’m not surprised about that because people know that there’s a heritage related to that, these seeds have been passed down…I started working with these because I recognized that they were so unique, the colors and flavors.  I’m just trying to improve upon a good thing.

There’s an emotional attachment, and they probably feel that a breeder like me is out to ruin them, but they don’t understand that I’m not.  I’m working with them because I love them too!

Apparently one source of pride for Doug is that he developed a seedless tomato several years ago, a remarkable breakthrough.  Others had tried, but he was proud to tell us that he had bred a tomato that was plump, delicious, and seedless.  It turns out that there is quite a demand for it, especially amongst people with diverticulosis, a condition that prevents them from eating things with tiny seeds.  He refuses to call a project complete until it matches his ideals for flavor and quality.  He doesn't just work towards a single trait; he wants the whole, tasty package.

We asked him about the negative media surrounding Monsanto and its projects.  He is frustrated at the assumptions that are made by the public, and wishes that he could explain his methods and passion directly, to open ears:

...the seedless tomato, which I mentioned was traditional breeding from my work the last 17 years…when people found out that it was from Monsanto, they instantly assumed that it was GMO.  It’s like, "here’s something new, it must be GMO!"  And I’m reading the blogs and I’m thinking, “My gosh!  People have no clue.”  

Some people were saying, “Yeah, Monsanto’s making everything sterile so they can control the food supply…” And it’s amazing.  So yeah, misinformation travels fast.  You can try what you can to set the record straight, I mean every time I read one of those I want to jump in a correct them, but at some point I can’t stay up all night doing this!

But it makes me sad that people understand so little and that they assume the worst, for sure.  I mean it’s far from the case.

Doug appreciates his predecessors, the researchers, farmers, and gardeners who have made strides in the tomato breeding community.  He tells us the story of a professor whom he got to meet that was working on creating seedless (parthenocarpic) tomatoes:

His name was Dr. William Frazier, we called him Tex Frazier and he was from Oregon State University up in Corvallis.  I got a chance to meet him before he died, and I knew he was working on these parthenocarpic tomatoes.  My predecessors told me, “go visit Tex!  We think he’s got a garden at his house.”  He’s retired, but he’s got a garden.  And sure enough, this guy had like a hilltop garden in Corvallis.  And having been a professor he was very meticulous, he had everything labeled...and the juiciness…I cut one of these things and my shoes got all wet.  I was like “woah!  What is that?!”  It was a really great thing to tap into the stuff he had, because he had a lot of the pieces of the great flavor that are here as well.  Didn’t have much disease resistance left ‘cause he was just selecting for the seedlessness and the flavor.  It really made a great impression on him that I was going to be able to commercialize this.  He couldn’t quite understand how I was going to do it.

But this guy was so passionate evidently that they buried him with some tomato plants and tools.  It was so great to have met him in his house and this handoff of some important seeds that I was able to put into production...I hope I can name one after him.   Big Tex or something like that! 

He also notes Jack Hanna and Charlie Rick as two significant contributors to the tomato world.  Charlie Rick collected samples of wild tomatoes from around the world and stored them at UC-Davis so that breeders could "delve into the past" to find disease resistance and other genetics that might be bred into existing commercial crops.  Doug references this as we sample a sun-warmed tomato off the vine:

Isn’t that amazing?  So now you can taste the acids too, but this is kind of high-sugar, high-acid.   The typical old-time flavor, “oh my grandpa had tomatoes like that!”  Check out the juice on that thing.   See, we just do not see that anymore in modern varieties.  And I really had to delve into the past to grab stuff like that. 

He agrees with the common perception that commercial varieties of tomatoes have been fairly bland in recent decades, and is happy to see the market moving away from that.  As a breeder he is victim to market demands for the most part, but he also must forecast the future as best he can.  Because it takes anywhere from 4-12 years to develop a commercial variety, he must predict the desires of the public.
It’s nice that we are able to keep on discovering things too, that’s the fun of it.  You never know everything; you have to keep an open mind.  That’s important, I think, as a scientist, to keep an open mind.   Because if we didn’t we’d still think the world was flat and if you went you went off the edge, you went off the edge of the turtle’s back! {laughs} We never know everything; we’re always discovering new things. 

Towards the end we asked him, as we asked all of our interviewees, "What would be some ideal changes you'd like to see in the ag system?"  His response was not unlike many farmers:

I would like to see more land trusts and things like that, preserving the land.  I don’t want to see ever-shrinking farmland, ‘cause there’s probably only so far we can go with this mega-production on a small piece.  I would like to see more land trusts and things where good prime agricultural land is maintained for that, or even just wild wetlands and things like that.  But for farming, not developing really good farmland…putting buildings on top of prime agricultural land, that doesn’t make sense to me!  That’s what I would like to see.  That’s probably another political question, but I think for the good of the planet and the populations in the future, we better think about stuff like that, maintaining good farmland. 

And then being good stewards of that land you have. 

Click the jump to read the full interview with Doug Heath.  It is a long one, and includes some practical information about field rotations, more personal stories, explanations of nutrition and sugar analysis, details of disease-resistance genetics, and perspectives on the agriculture system.

Thursday, April 21, 2011

Ag Video Thursday: A brief overview of tomato genetics.

In preparation for our next profile, Monsanto tomato breeder Doug Heath, we thought we'd give you a quick prep on genetics.

The first is entertaining, put out by a group in Europe called EU-Sol, entitled "Genetics 2.0- Tomatoes Having Sex."

The second is a student video from Oregon State that gives a 3-minute summary of how a cross is made between male and female plants. A hybrid tomato is made by crossing two tomato plants with fixed genetics, known as "parents." I believe that there is some misconception out there about hybrids. I must stress that hybridization is completely unrelated to genetic engineering. It is simply a controlled process that allows breeders to consistently offer traits such as disease-resistance, yield, color, etc. Seeds are rarely saved because they will not reproduce consistently; it's a natural result of the process.

Third is song. While trolling for a good video summary of genetics, I found this great one about Gregor Mendel, a song by a group called Moxy Fruvous from Toronoto.

Finally, if you'd like a more in-depth, brief lecture (6 minutes) on tomato genetics, the last video is of a researcher, Dr. Harry Klee at University of Florida discussing the process of tomato crossing and molecular biology. He discusses molecular markers, which allows breeders to see inside the tomato's DNA and see if they have achieved a desired cross. That process can cut years off of research and development, but still uses classic breeding methods. If it's been awhile since your Biology 201 class, I recommend it as an update.

Enjoy! Genetics and tomatoes...two of my favorite things.

Thursday, April 14, 2011

Ag Video Thursday: The American Farm Bill explained on a TEDx Talk

The gigantic and confusing political document that governs agricultural spending in the United States is called the Farm Bill. Every 4 or 5 years a new bill is voted upon, and every edition makes many people nervous.

You've heard of farm subsidies? Those come out of the Farm Bill. They effectively pay a fund to farmers who grow crops like corn, cotton, and soybeans, our large commodities. Subsidies often receive a negative opinion in the media, especially from people who support small, diversified farms. In the Midwest, however, these subsidies are what keep farmers and towns in business. Our last post, on Ken Warren from The Land Institute, touches on that.

But the Farm Bill covers much more than that; most of its monies actually go to Food Stamps and other food-related economic support.

In this 13-minute TED Talk, Ken Cook explains the breakdown of the last bill, and makes some proposals for a rearrangement of its focus.

Monday, April 11, 2011

Salina, Kansas: Ken Warren, The Land Institute

I grew up in Manhattan, but went to the farm quite a lot and I always enjoyed that.  My background really is very very scattered.  I’m a geologist by training and spent some time on the dark side.  Worked for oil companies in Alaska and so forth, was involved in one of the real early wells on the North Slope.  Then, through a real strange bit of twists and turns, I ended up in the investment banking business and spent about 25 years in there, pretty much detesting every moment of it.

And one time when I came back for an alumni meeting, because I do have a degree from K-State as well, one of the people that I respected there met me at the airport and said, “you’re not really coming to this meeting are you?”  And I said, “look, I didn’t fly back here just for the fun of it.  What do you mean?”  And he said, “Well, there’s a fellow over in Salina that I think you ought to meet.I said, “Look, I grew up in Manhattan; nobody smart ever came from Salina.”

He said, “Ah, well that’s the way it is, is it?  Well, in that case, I’m not even taking you into town, we’re going directly to Salina and you can meet Wes Jackson.”  He told me about Wes Jackson on the way over.  That was in the very early days here.
If farming could be compared to Hollywood, it would be easy to pick out the celebrities.  There's controversial Joel Salatin, hippie successful Eliot Coleman, popular Michael Pollan, and there's the sexy old timers Wendell Berry and Wes Jackson.  When you hear a speech or read an essay by one of these farming heavy hitters, the average joe is inclined to listen and listen good- they obviously know what they are doing.  The Land Institute, founded by Jackson, is a place in the middle of the country that acts as a hub for these progressive thinkers, writers, and workers.

The Land Institute is best known for its work towards perennializing grain crops.  What does that mean? At its simplest, it's an attempt to change our crop habits from annuals (plant the corn, grow the corn, harvest the corn, repeat) to a prairie-like diversified system.  A farmer would harvest multiple crops at once from a complex prairie of edible grains, but would not have to replant because they are perennials; their roots keep them alive and they re-sprout on their own the following year.

Travis and I were deep in the heart of summertime Kansas when we pulled up on August 2nd.  There we met with Ken Warren, managing director of The Land Institute.  It was nice to hear a voice other than the prolific Wes Jackson's, and Ken is a passionate conversationalist and scientist in his own right.

Ken sat with us and gave a full tour of the property for a very pleasant few hours while he explained the issues of perennializing wheat and other grains.  Ken is a great presenter and he pulled out all the stops for Travis and I, explaining that the average American gets 70% of his/her calories from grains as he kicked out a 20-foot-long poster across the floor depicting the massive root system of wheat that has been perennialized.  Wheat that is in the field for more than a year has a HUGE root system, let me tell you.  We saw another example of this later on in the visit when Ken drove us out to the plots of wheat and we climbed down into a pit that had been excavated to give a great visual of the root system of a grand-daddy wheat plant.

You might wonder what the benefits are of perennialized food.  The cost of growing it would be much much less, as farmers would be spared the yearly seed and planting expenses, and much of the fertilizer/equipment/fuel expense.  That would translate into lower prices at the grocery store or bakery.  Erosion control in one of the home states of the dust bowl would be mightily enhanced by the ever-growing root systems these plants have to offer, and perhaps all the doomsday predictors who say we'll be starving by 2050 could come to the conclusion that food that keeps on growing without being tilled/plowed/worked/etc. could provide bread in the face of upcoming disaster.

There is a popular saying that Trav and I saw on billboards in middle America that went something like this:  "Every farmer feeds 129 Americans."  Wendell Berry responded to that with "well, you'd have to slice them pretty thin."  Ken quoted that to us and imparted his belief that farming is an incredibly risky act and farmers are the biggest gamblers, with the most to lose, in our society.  Shouldn't they (and we) have the benefit of growing food that will keep giving instead of re-buying it every year?

We asked Ken, as we asked all farmers, what the role of the farmer should be in our society: 

First of all, he’s gotta be more interactive.   Farmers don’t even talk to each other!  We have a farmer that works with us who really does understand controlling inputs.  In fact he has a pickup truck he calls Herb because he bought it with herbicide savings.  He doesn’t feel comfortable talking to his neighbors about his methods, although he knows that per acre he makes more money than they do, and is probably lots better for the environment than they are. 

Wheat isn't the only crop that is being bred and crossed for perennializationmilo), sunflowers, and corn are included.  One of the tenets of The Land Institute is that a diverse crop has a much greater chance of being healthy.  Ken struggles with getting more input from farmers themselves about what they'd like to see, and when the day is done, what they'd actually buy.  He lamented that most farmers "are not a chatty bunch."
We asked him a question that Trav had wondered for some time.  How does a perennial system respond to the argument that we need to increase yields of all crops to "feed the world" in the coming years?

Absolutely.  Absolutely.  And I don’t know how you do that.   I mean, it frightens me that every 15 days we add to the population of this planet the size of the population of this state.  And when I think about that I just think, “there’s no way!” 

Of all things that give me a real start, thinking about the hope for the future, that’s one that really is a sobering one.  And if you don’t bring it up, people always say, “eh, well, have you considered population growth??” “We considered population.”  “What’re you doin’ about it?”  “What am I doing about it?”  Preaching.  I don’t know what else to do. 

Ken also is a bit frustrated and was candid with his doubts and concerns about the perennialization process.  He spoke of the struggling Plains farmers and the booming world population.

Farmers can’t live right now without the subsidies.  Back when those diesel fuel prices went crazy, it was really close out here for a lot of them.  

They didn’t realize, I think, that the last of diesel fuel is not gonna be running a tractor, it’s gonna be in a Hummer limousine going somewhere.   They really got to thinking about that.  And they got to thinking, “you know, we can’t afford to irrigate this corn anymore, ‘cause we’re up against it, takes a lot of energy to do that.”  So what happens?  Ethanol raises its ugly head.  And it makes all of that thing profitable again.  And they go back to their old habits.

The real thing you’d like to see happen is more of that money go back to the farmer.  And stay in their pockets and stay in their communities.  That’s probably as big a dream as any. 

How does a town like this one live if trucks don’t come down the interstate?  We don’t know how to grow food.   What would we do?  We used to have a diversified support system around here.  Today’s paper, always does, has a little column that goes back 25, 50, 75, 100 years.  You read about those things and you realize what we lost here. 

On a final note, if there is anyone out there who does think of farmers in celebrity terms then prepare yourself to feel a twinge of jealousy- Trav and I did exchange hello's and how-do's with Wes Jackson.  As we wrapped up our interview with Ken, a middle-aged, dirty-from-the-fields man walked in the door and asked us if we needed anything, which we didn't, but it was nice of him to offer.  He sure looked like he could stand a glass of ice water to survive the ups and downs of mimicking the perennialized American prairie.        

A summary of "Why Perennial Grain Crops?" can be found on The Land Institute website, here.

Click on the jump below to read most of the interview, including discussion of genetic diversity, the difference between traditional breeding and genetic engineering, and some sobering thoughts on how farmers in Kansas are faring.  He also goes into detail of the process of combining modern annual wheat with its perennial cousin.

Thursday, April 7, 2011

Kathleen Merrigan On Genetically Engineered Alfalfa

Have you been paying attention?  A lot is going on in the agriculture sector these days, and one of the hottest topics is genetic engineering.

Recently, the USDA deregulated genetically engineered (GE) alfalfa and sugar beets.  Many people ar excited about this, and many people (mostly the louder and more public ones) are upset.  The list of concerns is long and constant: will GE crops threaten other strains?  Is there too much corporate influence in these decisions?  Are GE foods affecting our health (or other animals')?  Do they really result in less pesticide use?  What about herbicide-tolerant weeds?

We plan to begin posting on this blog soon with factsheets about these hot-topic issues.  They will attempt to collect pro and con arguments, provide summaries, facts, and questions, and will do so as an unbiased source of information.

I encourage you to see this 2 minute video by Deputy Ag. Secretary Merrigan if you are in the industry.  In it she calls for nominations to the USDA's Biotechnology Advisory Committee, a new group to discuss policy around GE crops.

If you are concerned, please consider who you would like representing you in this discussion.  If you are in support, same thing.

Meanwhile, look for profiles and interviews later this week with Ken Warren, director of The Land Institute, and Doug Heath, tomato breeder for Monsanto.

Take care!


Tuesday, March 22, 2011

Nicodemus, Kansas: Florence Howard, 79, retired farmer.

I was born and raised up on the farm. Been a farmer all my life. I got married in 1950, the guy I married, he was a farmer and a rancher. He passed away in 2005, and I moved down to Nicodemus, been here ever since. We raised cattle, milo, and wheat. Our farm was twenty-five hundred acres, you know, and we had all type of different machinery to work with.

First we stopped in Bogue.  The wide streets seemed like the set of a wholesome movie, with kids splashing away the 100 degree day in a kiddie pool in a front yard; the banker and the postmistress gave us helpful advice about who would be good to talk to for the project in this area.  This former railroad town was struggling though, especially since the authorities took the train away a few years back.  What is a rail town with no rail?

We went a few miles over to the next township, Nicodemus.  It held memories of being a thriving community, though the population has steadily declined to less than 40.  We stopped into the museum to check out displays regarding what Nicodemus was like when the first African Americans came here to settle in the mid 1800's (it was one of the homestead towns, to which emancipated slaves relocated).  The display that I recall the best was about the first abodes in Nicodemus; there was a lack of wood and folks made there homes in caves and holes in the ground.  There was a diary excerpt of a very disenchanted settler who was shocked to see the first settlers coming out of their caves to welcome the new folks.  

Nicodemus grew fast in industry and soon the transplants were doing business on main street and the first farmers were trying to make sense of the plains.  Every summer there is a big family reunion in Nicodemus for all the town residents (who are mostly related somehow) and their relatives who have since moved away.  A man at the museum told us that it's a terrible place to try to score a date; he found out that a woman he had been pursuing all day was his cousin, a few times removed.

The volunteer at the historical society was most helpful in connecting us with the retired farmer, whom they called Miss Florence.  After peering out the window at the other side of town (there are only three or four streets, with few trees) she ascertained by which cars were parked who was in, she picked up he phone to call Florence.  Not getting any answer did not deter her in the least and she jumped in her car with promises to be right back and sped off to Miss Florence's house.  Miss Florence was convinced to come in shortly thereafter and be interviewed by us, and we were grateful to have her unique perspective.

Miss Florence is a vital resident of Nicodemus who looks much younger than her physical years.  She and her husband farmed until his death and her retirement about 6 years ago, and her son still farms in the area.  She patiently answered all of our questions, and seemed too modest to talk much about any subject that she herself introduced.  Discussing her farming life seemed to wear her out.  She shone with energy and pleasure though when she talked about fishing in the nearby river.  Her portrait is particularly eloquent and beautiful, and I think the look on her face betokens the hard work she's accomplished in her farming life.  

When we asked her if she missed farm life, she said, "Oh, yeah. Mmm hmmm. I was lost when I moved back down here. Nothin' to do. Just sit around visiting, go fishin.' Quite a change."

On the biggest issue of being a farmer:

Money. Money to keep it going, you know. One bank we dealt with was real nice, and the other, they got kind of crazy. Found out they finally went under theyself. We had nice neighbors, one thing I was thankful for. There wasn't very many, at that time there wasn't very many black farmers south of here, and they was way older than what we were. Then they all died out and just left us there.
Click below to read the full interview with Miss Florence!

Wednesday, March 16, 2011

Nicodemus, Kansas: Gil Alexander.

I want to be a good farmer, but I also want to be a good steward too...but I’ve got a banker I’ve got to satisfy too, so I’ve got to grow those bushels.

It was hot and dry in Kansas.  And it had been dry for some time.  The farmers here in dryland counties were struggling, having no irrigation infrastructure, and with drought years fresh in their memories.  

As we traveled and made connections, looking for interesting people to talk to and farms to visit, at some point we called Edgar Hicks of the Kansas Black Farmers Association.  Groups and associations often gave us terrific leads and introduced us to farmers that we would never have met otherwise.  Edgar encouraged us to drive to Nicodemus, Kansas, a town 40 miles from the nearest interstate.  When we looked it up on a map, we saw a tiny footprint of 3 or 4 streets upon a backdrop of fields.  In Kansas, in farm country, the roads around the fields are set in one-mile-square grids.

There we met a number of great people, and learned about this historical community, the "only remaining western town established by African Americans during the Reconstruction period following the Civil War" according to its website.  The current population is roughly 40.  More on Nicodemus in the next post.

We met Gil Alexander, whom multiple people insisted we contact.  We met him on his farm in the evening, as the sun was getting low.  Thunderclouds were forming suggestively as we entered his house.  

When the interview was over, we went out into the darkness to take a photo.  Thunder could be heard, and Gil looked up into the clouds, hopefully.  We all smelled the stirred-up dust.  Then it rained.
I’m the family historian.  Whenever an aunt or uncle dies, the trunks all come to my house.  I’m actually fourth generation.  The whole thing was started by that gentleman right up there {points to a photograph}, Sam Garland.  He was a slave in Mississippi, he was half black; his mother was a Cherokee Indian.  They were gonna make a field hand out of him, so he ran off at the age of 14.  Worked on the Mississippi River as a cabin boy, and he eventually heard that Congress was forming the 24th and 25th Infantry in the 9th and 10th Calvary for black soldiers to serve.

Gil is one of few remaining farmers in the area, working about 2,700 acres of wheat, corn, and sorghum.  He is a founding member of the Kansas Black Farmers Association, and with that group is working on several projects.  He feels that they need to create a niche for themselves, as commodity prices and operation costs have not been friendly recently.  Some years ago, the railroad pulled out of town, making it harder and more expensive for Gil and his neighbors to offload their crops.

He is at times solemn and at times jolly as we talk, alternating between discussion of hardships and pleasures.  Like many farmers, he left the farm when he had the chance, and never intended to come back, but ended up in charge when he returned one season.

I’m a flatlander.  I like looking out my window and seeing the town 30 miles away.  While my dad was alive, we ran cattle and I worked at Winter Park Ski Resort during the winter.  I would leave Thanksgiving weekend, and dad could handle cattle by himself, and then about the second weekend of April I’d come back to the farm to work.  Guys out there thought I was nuts, arguably the most beautiful scenery in the world, right?  The Rocky Mountains.  And after about 2 months, man, I was going nuts, I was like, “I need to see what’s over there!”  I just couldn’t see far enough.

We asked about the KBFA and the associated projects, such as the Flour Co-op (he sent us off with a package of pancake mix, made from his white wheat flour and sewn up in a lovely little bag) and the Nicodemus Teff project, which hopes to grow and market teff to the American Ethiopian communities who can not import it from their home country.

[The KBFA] came together through Glickman vs. Pigford.  Remember the lawsuit?  Gosh, my timeline’s probably way off here, probably even 10 years ago.  Tim Pigford files a lawsuit against the USDA for discrimination.  It just went nationwide immediately.  In fact, there’s still some issues with it.  And because of that, we started going to different meetings to learn about the lawsuit.   I never will forget, we went to a meeting in Oklahoma City and I walked into a pretty good sized room, and there were probably 300-400 people there who were black farmers.  Which just blew my mind.  I had never really talked agriculture with  another black person before, it was just strange.  A lot of them were ranchers, still involved in agriculture.

Click the link to read the full interview.  Gil speaks about no-till farming, his wariness of the direction that his type of agriculture is going, and about why he feels so connected to this spot.

When we asked him, as we asked everybody, what the role of the farmer is society should be, he had one of my favorite answers:  

We should be kings.  Seriously, we feed y’all!

Sunday, March 6, 2011

Sisters, Oregon: Lynn Miller, editor, The Small Farmer's Journal

I'm working on an editorial right now, I just came up with something.
Sometimes you just put two words together and you think, well why didn't
I ever think of that before? I'm trying to understand what this means.
It could be good, it could be bad, but it's bouncing around in my head.
And the two words are "civilian agriculture." 

Because what we have had is a military agriculture...not militant, but this
institutionalized, industrialized agriculture has lost its...its
civility, certainly, but it's also lost its civilian aspects. And I
figured, if I'm permitted to stay at this for another 10 or 20 years,
I'll get something right.

In the spirit of Spring we thought we would skip around a little, and share our interview with Lynn Miller of The Small Farmer's Journal based in the idyllic town of Sisters, Oregon. Before I write about Lynn I will set the personal scene. Travis and I met while we were both living in the slightly bigger town to the southwest, Bend, Oregon. Sisters is named after a set of three mountains that tower gracefully in the background, known simply to most as the Three Sisters, or Faith, Hope, and Charity to the more detail-oriented. They stand over the town like good reminders and the folks who live there do seem to have the extraordinary community that can accompany a small mountain town, where the owners of the cafes are also the waitresses and they know all the locals' names. Everyone gathers at the unabashedly Christian-themed coffee house for good coffee, conversation with friends, and a game of checkers on the huge checkerboard, or a rock in the rustic rocking chairs.

Besides being an extremely pleasant town, Sisters is home to the Sisters Folk Festival and a world famous quilt show each year, which makes its population bulge with tourists in the summer.  Trav and I timed our arrival to coincide with the Festival, which is my favorite music festival to be at- there are about 6 stages set up throughout the downtown area and talented musicians play all day and into the night for a weekend, with enough variety to satisfy every ear. We both have friends that are like family to us in Bend, so finishing our trip here was like a big homecoming for Trav and I. I spent that week with 4 girls I had lived with and we share a connection that expands when one of us goes and snaps back like a rubber band when we are all together. It was a week of beautiful weather and friends and music and wrapping up an epic journey across the country.
Back to Lynn Miller of the quarterly publication, The Small Farmers Journal (SFJ). Lynn has his office in Sisters; it is a two story building filled with all kinds of things that could start a thousand conversations. There are racks that hold past and present issues of the SFJ, farming implements, Lynn's own paintings all over the walls, and his office is piled high with papers and books which over the course of the interview he often refers to. Lynn himself is a distinguished-looking man with a white goatee and a cowboy hat.  His bearing and speech are undeniably intelligent and passionate in a dramatic sort of way, a product of a life of "more keynotes and presentations than I care to count."

Lynn started the interview off by telling us who his enemies are and why he considers them threats.  The folks who have brought much popular attention to small-scale and organic agriculture, like the producers of Food Inc. or Michael Pollan, outrage Lynn because he believes that they are creating a fad that will pass away sooner rather than later. Boutique agriculture is my enemy.

The public eye is on agriculture in a way that it hasn't been before as most people are far removed from the farm but the public is getting more and more concerned about food supply, cost, and manner of production.  But he sees a great and inspiring movement amongst people of all ages, a new agrarian momentum.

Those 20-something people that you're talking about, that we're talking
with and to and about all the time, they're about the craft of farming.
Not the industry. The craft. That's what they're drawn to. And
they're drawn to those models, examples, where the craft of the farming
will pay the bills for them, give them the character of a life, a
working life, that they feel genetically drawn to. It's like a
genetic memory.

Lynn feels that popular agricultural celebrities, like Michael Pollan and Eric Schlosser, are making capital off of the attention ag is getting without making a substantial difference in the way that people see farmers and farming. Basically, Lynn thinks that anyone who trivializes agriculture is in danger of having the masses lose interest in the "fad" of agriculture that exists right now. Lynn proposes a much more rigorous (and truthful) education for non farming folks, so that they can know that agriculture isn't a trivial matter; survival is what it comes down to.

Lynn gave us some personal history (My mother is Puerto Rican. English is my second language. I grew up in the barrio. I have degrees in the fine arts. I was a professional musician and singer. I was a ballet dancer. I was an actor...) and about how he started the SFJ about 35 years ago. He had experience managing different farm operations, and bought his first farm and team of horses when he was in his late twenties. Farming without tractors was rare and Lynn found that lots of people wanted to know where to get old equipment for horse teams, as well as how to use it. Lynn and his father brainstormed creating a quarterly magazine chock full of information applicable to small scale sustainable farming. The SFJ has an ever increasing following, and with the rising prices of fuel and interest in alternative energy it is sure to keep growing.

Lynn, a regular speech-giver, was one of the most poised and articulate interviewees we encountered.  Read on for the full interview, including insight into agricultural movements, pig roasts, and some poetic views on how we all connect to farming...

Thursday, February 24, 2011

Ag Video Thursday: Polk County, North Carolina

Kacy, one of the authors on this blog, works with the Polk County Agricultural Development Office in Mill Spring, North Carolina. Polk County is south of Asheville and Hendersonville, just up from the South Carolina border and includes the towns of Saluda, Columbus, and Tryon.

Eric and Lynn Turner have an HD Media company based in the same building as Kacy, an old being-renovated-at-the-moment brick school building with a lot of potential. In that building, a community is forming that includes Soil and Water, ag development people, artists, and farm marketers.

Last year, the Turners produced this lovely "Meet Your Farmer" video, with the simple intent to promote agriculture there in Polk County. The music comes from Tim McMorris, a talented and uplifting songwriter.  It just makes you feel good to be (or want to be) a farmer on any scale!  Enjoy.

Friday, February 18, 2011

Galatia, Illinois: Randy Anderson

You know, we ARE trying to be stewards of the land.  I look at it like this.  I look at the land and it's almost like a vehicle.  Okay, if you take this vehicle out here and you drive it back and forth to town just as hard as you can drive it, every trip you go, there's not going to be very many trips left in that vehicle.

In Benton, Illinois, on a hot day, we stopped at the local library to do some research and cool down.  We chatted with the librarian about our project, told her of our search for farmers, and she vanished for a few minutes.  When she emerged she had a sticky note with Randy Anderson's number and a smiley face on it.

Currently, Randy is recuperating from an injury that has his arm immobilized in a sling.  Two young boys played on the floor of his home, playing with John Deer tractor toys.  Their house is set on the same farm that Randy grew up on, amongst long Illinois crops, with typical grain storage bins in the driveway.   He farms about 3,000 acres of corn, soybeans, and winter wheat.  In this interview, he speaks of Roundup Ready crops and Bt corn.  These both refer to genetically engineered crops, a hot topic in agriculture.  

I'm part of the system and I'm part of the victim.  All of my soybeans are Roundup Ready.  Yeah, it's nice and easy to do.  The thing is, trying to grow traditional soybeans, there's not enough seed companies out there, and the majority of the companies are not concentrating any of their new development bringing any of the new traits, new genetics to the forefront as a traditional seed.  Meaning increased yield.  They put everything into this here other seed that's already got all the traits to it and then they send it out's kind of like walking onto a car lot and you got this model here to choose from but every model has got the same stuff on it except each one of them's a different color.  And then you go over to these other models and they don't got nothing.   They got stick shifts and no air conditioning.  That there's kind of like that traditional seed.

Randy seemed more skeptical than many of the farmers we spoke with, first suspecting us of having an "environmental" bent to our project.  We assured him that we didn't, and he started talking; nearly 20 minutes went by before we even asked our first full question. 

 A lot of people has a view that, you know, the farmer's out here and we're destroying the environment and we don't really care about what's going on.
Just seems like things is just not always as good as what they used to be.  I mean, there's so many things that I don't quite agree with anymore...I feel I produce as good a product or anything that I can out here on the farm, but by the time it gets to the consumer it's been messed with; I feel somewhat inferior.

I recommend reading this full interview; from a commodity farmer's perspective he speaks of politics, genetic engineering, pesticide use, and family history. 

Thursday, February 17, 2011

Thursday is Ag Video Day! The Plow That Broke the Plains, a 1937 propaganda film about the dust bowl.

This is a record of land...of soil rather than people--a story of the Great Plains; the 400,000,000 acres of wind-swept grasslands that spread up from the Texas panhandle to Canada...a high, treeless continent, without rivers, without streams...A country of high winds, and sun...and of little rain...

In 1937, this film was released by the Resettlement Administration, and generally wags a finger at American farmers and farm policy.  As a contemporary film to the dust bowl, the Great Depression, and the New Deal, it provides a fascinating bit of insight (and remarkable footage) into that era of agriculture.

The dust bowl changed the face of the country; I often wonder...if all of those families hadn't been forced to tie their chairs to their Fords and abandon their many of their descendants would still be there in the Midwest?  Would L.A. have been smaller, and Wichita become a more major city?

At one time, during the homestead days, much of the Plains were divided into 40- or 80-acre parcels.  Servicemen were offered many of them after WWI.  But when most of them wandered away, those who stayed found thousands of acres available again, and those titles became was natural that 80-acre farm families suddenly grew to 500-acre farm families.

The next generation, many children went to WWII.  If they returned, they had more options to move to cities, to go to college.  Again, was it not natural for them to relocate, leaving their parents to sell off their farm eventually?  Suddenly, a 500-acre farmer had more land available as his neighbors retired, and became a 1,000-acre farmer.  As of 2007, the average South Dakota farm size was 1,401 acres (and the vast majority are still family operations, contrary to popular belief).  This continues, and, amongst the popular small-farm and local-foods movements happening now, I wonder if there will ever be a movement to resettle the plains.

I have to wonder.  In the meantime, enjoy this 1937 film about how the grasslands turned to dust, how "Wheat will win the war!", and why so many families headed to California in the '30's as their plow was covered over.  It's 30 minutes long; make yourself comfortable and have a snack.  And think about where that snack came from.                    --Trav--

Saturday, February 12, 2011

LeRoy, Kansas: Lyle Fischer, LeRoy Coop Association.

I lived here all my life.  My dad worked in construction and farmed a little bit, but he never made a real livelihood out of farming. Had cattle and some hogs...raised seven kids.  Took a lot of food to feed seven kids.  I went on to school for four years and got my bachelors degree in business administration; had a buddy that was going to go to Cargill to work, and I said, "yeah, that wouldn't be so bad, working in a farm-type atmosphere."
Over in Burlington, Kansas, we drove down one of the extremely wide roads that made up the main street.  We were looking for farmer contacts, and we spotted the local Farm Bureau service office.  Popping our heads in, we were greeted by a couple of wonderful folks, all smiles and handshakes.  One of them was Larry Gleue the local agent.

Larry listened to our story, told a few of his own (like the one about the farmer who has had a suspicious number of insurance claims for lightning-struck cows, or the one about Larry's aging father who refuses to be told that he's too old to farm...Larry won't let him on the tractor anymore), and then pulled out his cell phone to start calling farmers for us.

One of the contacts that he gave us was Lyle Fischer, who manages the LeRoy Co-op Association, a nearby grain elevator and agronomy service.  Two days later, after enjoying the Coffey County Fair and a parade, we drove a few miles out to LeRoy to call on Lyle.
...Went to work here in 1976 as the assistant manager, getting the feed, the seed, all the supplies, worked the counter.  We started spraying row crops back in '75, so we bought a sprayer pickup a couple of years later and I drove that in the summertime for awhile.  Got to where that was taking too much time and I wasn't getting my stuff done in the office, so I quit doing that.  2001 I took over as general manager...nine years went by, and it doesn't seem like nine years!  I don't know, I really don't have a good story to tell.  It's just work!

A cooperative is member-owned.  In 1960, fifty years ago, the farmers wanted something better for them.  Competition-wise, they wasn't getting a fair shake in the market.  So they decided to start a cooperative and own it themselves.  From that it's grown to the membership we have now.  But a co-op is member-ownership; you earn your membership by doing business there, or you can buy membership.  Any money that's made at the end of the year is shared back to the people that have done business that year.  So all the assets, the income, is returned back to the members, based on their annual purchases, unlike an independent elevator or grain business, where it goes in their own pocket.  
We were sitting down with Lyle on his porch with an unobstructed view of his beautiful backyard and grain bins.  He took us on a bit of an economic overview of the past few decades in farming; in the 70's and 80's when he was just starting out in the business the real issue was farmer debt and high interest. Interest on loans made to farmers was as high as 18% and many farmers were not able to keep afloat during those years.

1980 was a tough year.  It was a dry year.  Very, very dry.  That hurt too, back with the interest and the dry year, people didn't raise a crop.  And not too many people had crop insurance then. 

In the 90's, the price for commodity crops were at rock bottom, which has changed today.  While commodity crops command a better price these days, the catch for many farmers currently is the high price of inputs. Any natural or synthetic additions a farmer has to apply to the soil or crop is usually very expensive.
Lyle also has seen a lot of farmers working hard to reduce their pollution from chemicals and runoff. The government requirements are getting tighter and tighter and in this area nitrogen has been found in drinking water and phosphate in the lakes. Lyle believes that the government will continue to demand better and cleaner systems, and he has seen that most farmers are willing to comply with requests even before they are requirements. A lot of farmers in this area have lined their streams with filter strips which prevents runoff to some degree.
We asked him about the increasing size of these Midwest crop farms...are they getting bigger because they want to or because they have to to stay afloat?

I would say that most of them are getting bigger because they have to.  Now, there's a few, I'm sure, that are getting bigger because of pride.  You know, "I want to be bigger than the other guy."  I could tell you a few of those.  Most of them, I'd say, are getting bigger because they see the need to farm more acres to make their machinery pay.  To me, I can't understand how they can put a quarter million dollars into a combine or $200,000 into a planter, and plant two or three thousand acres and make it work.  I guess they have to.  I spend $200,000 for a sprayer, but I can spray 30, 40,000 acres, generate a lot more income.  Not necessarily profit, but a lot more income, cash flow, out of that machine.  But when you run a quarter million dollar combine over 2,000 acres, I don't know, that's a lot of money per acre.

We also asked him about the negative press that chemicals often get in popular press, and how he feels about it:

I think the word "chemical" sounds like a hazardous material.  Maybe the word "chemicals" is the wrong word to use.  "Herbicide" is a better terminology to use.  Herbicide is used by our customers to control weeds.  Then there's pesticides.  Pesticides are more for pest control, insects. do you tell the consumer that these chemicals are not hazardous to the food?

Herbicides are safe!  They're out there to control weeds.  The plant that grows, like the corn or soybean, is tolerant to those herbicides, so it doesn't bother that grain that's growing.  I don't know.

I don't know if the consumer actually knows what it takes to raise a crop, to make the bread on his table and the eggs in his frying pan, I don't know if they do or not.  Sometimes you wonder.  I me, the naturalist or whoever that thinks that we can feed the world on the way it was 50 years ago, is going to go hungry.  We can't feed the world on 50-bushel {per acre} corn, 20-bushel beans.  We have to have genetics, we have to have fertilizer, we have to have herbicides...we have to have those traits in these crops to make higher yields. 

The GMO is the traits that they put in the plant so that the plant is resistant to the corn borer.  Well, think about that.  The corn borer, the corn root worm is being controlled genetically in the plant instead of using a pesticide.  So the use of a true pesticide, the organophosphates that we used to use to control corn root worms, we don't use them anymore.  We don't have to!  Because the plant itself has got the gene in there to control that pest.

So the pesticide use has gone down bunches in our country, in corn and soybean country.  Because we don't use them anymore! 

To society I think that farmers offer a lot.  They're independently owned.  They're their own boss.  I'm not sure how to answer that, except that farmers are just a huge part of this society, in these communities.  Now Kansas City or Wichita, you know, they get overlooked.  What do you think?

I think there's a lot of people that wish they could be more involved in raising their own food, having their flower gardens...farming to me is just a livelihood.  I don't know how anybody could beat it, to be a farmer.  You're your own boss, you're out there working with your animals, you know nobody's telling you what to do everyday!  The young people that don't ever experience those thoughts even, or the joy of it, being out in the country, they're missing a lot.

Read the full interview here, and learn about the complex grain marketing system, government regulations, and a year in the life of a grain elevator.